What are the main environmental protection policies?
Stuart Salween, Harvard Law School graduate
Each year, thousands of applicants compete for a coveted spot at one of the top-ranked law schools in an Ivy League country. In 2006, I applied and was accepted to Harvard Law School and feel proud to be a student of that school. With that in mind, I wanted to share some tips I learned during the application process that helped me get into my chosen law school. We hope they can help you too.
Certificate in Environmental Policy, Law, and Society
If enforcement is not the path you want to take, but you still want to influence environmental law, you may want to consider a Bachelor of Environmental Law.
By studying this major, you will not only learn about the environment and its laws, but also gain valuable knowledge about American advocacy, ethics, and democracy. You can learn about state and local government, as well as natural resource law and policy.
Momentum is building towards stronger forest protection to tackle illegal logging and the timber trade.
We are facing a triple planetary crisis of climate change, biodiversity loss and toxic pollution. Forests are at the heart of this crisis as they play a key role in mitigating climate change, protecting biodiversity and supporting the lives and livelihoods of indigenous peoples and forest-dependent communities. However, the ability of forest ecosystems to perform these key functions is increasingly threatened by deforestation and forest degradation. To address the issue of global deforestation, we must focus on curbing illegal logging and the timber trade, a neglected but important component of protecting forest ecosystems.
In November, parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) met in Panama and reaffirmed their commitment to addressing the biodiversity and climate crisis. They have taken important steps to protect forests by adopting proposals to regulate international trade in more than 150 species (spp.) of trees.
II. Nature rights, animal rights
Ecologically-centered or biocentric approaches enforcing the right to nature or its constituent parts may be promising for the development of legally recognized animal rights. Nature rights are not widespread, but they do have potential for growth and impact. On the constitutional level, Ecuador was the first to recognize the rights of nature. Article 71 begins: “Nature, or Pacha Mama, where life multiplies and emerges, has the right to fully respect its existence and the maintenance and renewal of its life cycles, structure, functions and evolutionary processes.” 27 x 27. Constitución de la República del Ecuador 2008, Art. 71, translated in Illustrated Constitutions of the World (HeinOnline, Jefri Jay Ruchti, ed., Maria Del Carmen Gress & JJ Ruchti, Trans., 2018). Bolivia adopted this approach through the Mother Earth Rights Act (2010); 28 x 28. Ley de Derechos de la Madre Tierra, Ley 071 (2010) (ill). The enumerated rights are the right to life, diversity of life, water, clean air, homeostasis, restoration, and life without pollution. 29 x 29. Personal card. Other states have recognized the right to Court Opinions 30 x 30. See Int’l Rivers et al., supra note 6, at 15-49.
At the most basic level, if nature has rights and if nature includes animals, rights-based claims can be made on behalf of animals using existing nature rights doctrine and strategy. A 2008 Supreme Court of Justice case in Brazil, known as the Wild Parrot Case, illustrates this 31 x 31 possibility. S.T.J. , No. 1.797.175 / SP, Relator: Ministro OG Fernandes, 21.03.2019, Revista Eletronica da Jurisprudência, 13.05.2019. (Braz.), https://processo.stj.jus.br/processo/revista/documento/mediado/? Library). It concerns an individual who has kept a wild animal, a blue-fronted macaw, captive for more than two decades and in inappropriate living conditions. 32 x 32. Personal card. in 2-3. This parrot is considered a wild species. It undoubtedly facilitated a connection with nature, but the Court used language that went beyond concern for wild species. The Court cited Article 225 of the Constitution as evidence of Brazil’s “ecological approach”. 33×33. ID. In 9. Article 225 is a human-centered human right to an “ecologically balanced environment,” not a right to nature protection. The constitutional framework for animal protection comes through the environment, “Animals and . . . flora” Box 34 x 34. Federal Art. 225 ( Braz.), translated in Constitutions of the World Illustrated (HeinOnline, Jefri Jay Ruchi, ed., Keith S. Rosenn, translation, 2020.) Remarkably, the Court has taken this limited language as a starting point to get to the discussion of nature rights and the recognition of organisms in general. (texajp_7)